JEE Main Syllabus
MATHEMATICS
UNIT 1 : SETS, RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS

Sets and their representation; Union, intersection and complement of sets and their
algebraic properties; Power set; Relation, Types of relations, equivalence relations,
functions;. oneone, into and onto functions, composition of functions.
UNIT 2 : COMPLEX NUMBERS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
[Start Exam]
 Complex numbers as ordered pairs of reals, Representation of complex numbers in the form a+ib and their representation in a plane, Argand diagram, algebra of complex numbers, modulus and argument (or amplitude) of a complex number, square root of a complex number, triangle inequality, Quadratic equations in real and complex number system and their solutions. Relation between roots and coefficients, nature of roots, formation of quadratic equations with given roots.
UNIT 3 : MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS
[Start Exam]
 Matrices, algebra of matrices, types of matrices, determinants and matrices of order two and three. Properties of determinants, evaluation of determinants, area of triangles using determinants. Adjoint and evaluation of inverse of a square matrix using determinants and elementary transformations, Test of consistency and solution of simultaneous linear equations in two or three variables using determinants and matrices.
UNIT 4 : PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS
[Start Exam]
 Fundamental principle of counting, permutation as an arrangement and combination as selection, Meaning of P (n,r) and C (n,r), simple applications.
UNIT 5 : MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION

Principle of Mathematical Induction and its simple applications.
UNIT 6 : BINOMIAL THEOREM AND ITS SIMPLE APPLICATIONS
[Start Exam]

Binomial theorem for a positive integral index, general term and middle term,properties of
Binomial coefficients and simple applications.
UNIT 7 : SEQUENCES AND SERIES
[Start Exam]

Arithmetic and Geometric progressions, insertion of arithmetic, geometric means between
two given numbers. Relation between A.M. and G.M. Sum upto n terms of special series: S n,S n2, Sn3.
Arithmetico  Geometric progression.
UNIT 8 : LIMIT, CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY
[Start Exam]
 Real valued functions, algebra of functions, polynomials, rational, trigonometric, logarithmic and exponential functions, inverse functions. Graphs of simple functions. Limits, continuity and differentiability. Differentiation of the sum, difference, product and quotient of two functions. Differentiation of trigonometric, inverse trigonometric, logarithmic, exponential, composite and implicit functions; derivatives of order upto two. Rolle's and Lagrange's Mean Value Theorems. Applications of derivatives: Rate of change of quantities, monotonic increasing and decreasing functions, Maxima and minima of functions of one variable, tangents and normals.
UNIT 9 : INTEGRAL CALCULUS
[Start Exam]

Integral as an anti derivative. Fundamental integrals involving algebraic, trigonometric,
exponential and logarithmic functions. Integration by substitution, by parts and by partial
fractions. Integration using trigonometric identities.
Evaluation of simple integrals of the type
Integral as limit of a sum. Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Properties of definite integrals. Evaluation of definite integrals, determining areas of the regions bounded by simple curves in standard form.
UNIT 10: DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
[Start Exam]

Ordinary differential equations, their order and degree. Formation of differential equations.
Solution of differential equations by the method of separation of variables, solution of
homogeneous and linear differential equations of the type:
UNIT 11: COORDINATE GEOMETRY

Cartesian system of rectangular coordinates 10 in a plane, distance formula, section
formula, locus and its equation, translation of axes, slope of a line, parallel and
perpendicular lines, intercepts of a line on the coordinate axes.
Straight lines [Start Exam]
Various forms of equations of a line, intersection of lines, angles between two lines, conditions for concurrence of three lines, distance of a point from a line, equations of internal and external bisectors of angles between two lines, coordinates of centroid, orthocentre and circumcentre of a triangle, equation of family of lines passing through the point of intersection of two lines.
Circles, conic sections [Start Exam]
Standard form of equation of a circle, general form of the equation of a circle, its radius and centre, equation of a circle when the end points of a diameter are given, points of intersection of a line and a circle with the centre at the origin and condition for a line to be tangent to a circle, equation of the tangent. Sections of cones, equations of conic sections (parabola, ellipse and hyperbola) in standard forms, condition for y = mx + c to be a tangent and point (s) of tangency.
UNIT 12: THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY
[Start Exam]
 Coordinates of a point in space, distance between two points, section formula, direction ratios and direction cosines, angle between two intersecting lines. Skew lines, the shortest distance between them and its equation. Equations of a line and a plane in different forms, intersection of a line and a plane, coplanar lines.
UNIT 13: VECTOR ALGEBRA
[Start Exam]
 Vectors and scalars, addition of vectors, components of a vector in two dimensions and three dimensional space, scalar and vector products, scalar and vector triple product.
UNIT 14: STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY
[Start Exam]

Measures of Dispersion: Calculation of mean, median, mode of grouped and ungrouped
data calculation of standard deviation, variance and mean deviation for grouped and
ungrouped data.
Probability: Probability of an event, addition and multiplication theorems of probability, Baye's theorem, probability distribution of a random variate, Bernoulli trials and Binomial distribution.
UNIT 15: TRIGONOMETRY
 Trigonometrical identities and equations. Trigonometrical functions. Inverse trigonometrical functions and their properties. Heights and Distances.
UNIT 16: MATHEMATICAL REASONING
 Statements, logical operations and, or, implies, implied by, if and only if. Understanding of tautology, contradiction, converse and contrapositive.
PHYSICS
The syllabus contains two Sections  A and B. Section  A pertains to the Theory Part having 80% weightage, while Section  B contains Practical Component (Experimental Skills) having 20% weightage.SECTION  A
UNIT 1: PHYSICS AND MEASUREMENT [Start Exam]

Physics, technology and society, S I units, Fundamental and derived units. Least count,
accuracy and precision of measuring instruments, Errors in measurement, Dimensions of
Physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications.
UNIT 2: KINEMATICS [Start Exam]

Frame of reference. Motion in a straight line: Positiontime graph, speed and velocity.
Uniform and nonuniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity Uniformly
accelerated motion, velocitytime, positiontime graphs, relations for uniformly
accelerated motion. Scalars and Vectors, Vector addition and Subtraction, Zero Vector,
Scalar and Vector products, Unit Vector, Resolution of a Vector. Relative Velocity, Motion in
a plane, Projectile Motion, Uniform Circular Motion.
UNIT 3: LAWS OF MOTION [Start Exam]

Force and Inertia, Newton's First Law of motion; Momentum, Newton's Second Law of
motion; Impulse; Newton's Third Law of motion. Law of conservation of linear momentum
and its applications, Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and Kinetic friction, laws of
friction, rolling friction. Dynamics of uniform circular motion: Centripetal force and its
applications.
UNIT 4: WORK, ENERGY AND POWER [Start Exam]

Work done by a constant force and a variable force; kinetic and potential
energies, workenergy theorem, power.
Potential energy of a spring, conservation of mechanical energy, conservative and nonconservative forces; Elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.
UNIT 5: ROTATIONAL MOTION [Start Exam]

Centre of mass of a twoparticle system, Centre of mass of a rigid body; Basic concepts of
rotational motion; moment of a force, torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular
momentum and its applications; moment of inertia, radius of gyration. Values of moments
of inertia for simple geometrical objects, parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and
their applications. Rigid body rotation, equations of rotational motion.
UNIT 6: GRAVITATION [Start Exam]

The universal law of gravitation. Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude
and depth. Kepler's laws of planetary motion. Gravitational potential energy; gravitational
potential. Escape velocity. Orbital velocity of a satellite. Geostationary satellites.
UNIT 7: PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS [Start Exam]

Elastic behaviour, Stressstrain relationship, Hooke's Law, Young's modulus, bulk modulus,
modulus of rigidity. Pressure due to a fluid column; Pascal's law and its applications.
Viscosity, Stokes' law, terminal velocity, streamline and turbulent flow, Reynolds number.
Bernoulli's principle and its applications. Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, application of surface tension  drops, bubbles and capillary rise. Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; specific heat capacity, calorimetry; change of state, latent heat. Heat transferconduction, convection and radiation, Newton's law of cooling.
UNIT 8: THERMODYNAMICS [Start Exam]

Thermal equilibrium, zeroth law of thermodynamics, concept of temperature. Heat, work
and internal energy. First law of thermodynamics. Second law of thermodynamics:
reversible and irreversible processes. Carnot engine and its efficiency.
UNIT 9: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES [Start Exam]

Equation of state of a perfect gas, work doneon compressing a gas.Kinetic theory of gases 
assumptions, concept of pressure. Kinetic energy and temperature: rms speed of gas
molecules; Degrees of freedom, Law of equipartition of energy,applications to specific heat
capacities of gases; Mean free path, Avogadro's number.
UNIT 10: OSCILLATIONS AND WAVES [Start Exam]

Periodic motion  period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions.
Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M.) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring restoring
force and force constant; energy in S.H.M.  kinetic and potential energies; Simple
pendulum  derivation of expression for its time period; Free, forced and damped
oscillations, resonance.
Wave motion. Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of a wave. Displacement relation for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, Standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics, Beats, Doppler effect in sound.
UNIT 11: ELECTROSTATICS [Start Exam]

Electric charges: Conservation of charge, Coulomb's lawforces between two point charges,
forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge
distribution.
Electric field: Electric field due to a point charge, Electric field lines, Electric dipole, Electric field due to a dipole, Torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field.
Electric flux, Gauss's law and its applications to find field due to infinitely long uniformly charged straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell. Electric potential and its calculation for a point charge, electric dipole and system of charges; Equipotential surfaces, Electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges in an electrostatic field.
Conductors and insulators, Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitor, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, Energy stored in a capacitor.
UNIT 12: CURRRENT ELECTRICITY [Start Exam]

Electric current, Drift velocity, Ohm's law, Electrical resistance, Resistances of different
materials, VI characteristics of Ohmic and nonohmic conductors, Electrical energy and
power, Electrical resistivity, Colour code for resistors; Series and parallel combinations of
resistors; Temperature dependence of resistance.
Electric Cell and its Internal resistance, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel. Kirchhoff's laws and their applications. Wheatstone bridge, Metre bridge. Potentiometer  principle and its applications.
UNIT 13: MAGNETIC EFFECTS OF CURRENT AND MAGNETISM [Start Exam]

Biot  Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop. Ampere's law and its
applications to infinitely long current carrying straight wire and solenoid. Force on a
moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron.
Force on a currentcarrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel currentcarrying conductorsdefinition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; Moving coil galvanometer, its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.
Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth's magnetic field and magnetic elements. Para, dia and ferro magnetic substances. Magnetic susceptibility and permeability, Hysteresis, Electromagnets and permanent magnets.
UNIT 14: ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ALTERNATING CURRENTS [Start Exam]

Electromagnetic induction; Faraday's law, induced emf and current; Lenz's Law, Eddy
currents. Self and mutual inductance. Alternating currents, peak and rms value of
alternating current/ voltage; reactance and impedance; LCR series circuit, resonance;
Quality factor, power in AC circuits, wattless current. AC generator and transformer.
UNIT 15: ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES [Start Exam]

Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics. Transverse nature of electromagnetic
waves.
Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, Xrays, gamma rays). Applications of e.m. waves.
UNIT 16: OPTICS [Start Exam]

Reflection and refraction of light at plane and spherical surfaces, mirror formula, Total
internal reflection and its applications, Deviation and Dispersion of light by a prism, Lens
Formula, Magnification, Power of a Lens, Combination of thin lenses in contact, Microscope
and Astronomical Telescope (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifyingpowers.
Wave optics: wavefront and Huygens' principle, Laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen's principle. Interference, Young's double slit experiment and expression for fringe width. Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum. Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes, Polarisation, plane polarized light; Brewster's law, uses of plane polarized light and Polaroids.
UNIT 17: DUAL NATURE OF MATTER ANDRADIATION [Start Exam]

Dual nature of radiation. Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard's observations; Einstein's
photoelectric equation; particle nature of light. Matter waveswave nature of particle, de
Broglie relation. DavissonGermer experiment.
UNIT 18: ATOMS AND NUCLEI [Start Exam]

Alphaparticle scattering experiment; Rutherford's model of atom; Bohr model, energy
levels, hydrogen spectrum. Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes,
isobars; isotones. Radioactivityalpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties;
radioactive decay law. Massenergy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and
its variation with mass number, nuclear fission and fusion.
UNIT 19: ELECTRONIC DEVICES [Start Exam]
 Semiconductors; semiconductor diode: IV characteristics in forward and reverse bias; diode as a rectifier; IV characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator. Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR). Transistor as a switch.
UNIT 20: COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS [Start Exam]
 Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere; Sky and space wave propagation, Need for modulation, Amplitude and Frequency Modulation, Bandwidth of signals, Bandwidth of Transmission medium, Basic Elements of a Communication System (Block Diagram only).
SECTION  B
UNIT 21: EXPERIMENTAL SKILLS

Familiarity with the basic approach and observations of the experiments and activities:
1. Vernier callipersits use to measure internal and external diameter and depth of a vessel.
2. Screw gaugeits use to determine thickness/diameter of thin sheet/wire.
3. Simple Pendulumdissipation of energy by plotting a graph between square of amplitude and time.
4. Metre Scale  mass of a given object by principle of moments.
5. Young's modulus of elasticity of the material of a metallic wire.
6. Surface tension of water by capillary rise and effect of detergents.
7. Coefficient of Viscosity of a given viscous liquid by measuring terminal velocity of a given spherical body.
8. Plotting a cooling curve for the relationship between the temperature of a hot body and time.
9. Speed of sound in air at room temperature using a resonance tube.
10. Specific heat capacity of a given (i) solid and (ii) liquid by method of mixtures.
11. Resistivity of the material of a given wire using metre bridge.
12. Resistance of a given wire using Ohm's law.
13. Potentiometer 
(i) Comparison of emf of two primary cells.
(ii) Determination of internal resistance of a cell.
14. Resistance and figure of merit of a galvanometer by half deflection method.
15. Focal length of:
(i) Convex mirror
(ii) Concave mirror, and
(iii) Convex lens using parallax method.
16. Plot of angle of deviation vs angle of incidence for a triangular prism.
17. Refractive index of a glass slab using a travelling microscope.
18. Characteristic curves of a pn junction diode in forward and reverse bias.
19. Characteristic curves of a Zener diode and finding reverse break down voltage.
20. Characteristic curves of a transistor and finding current gain and voltage gain.
21. Identification of Diode, LED, Transistor, IC, Resistor, Capacitor from mixed collection of such items.
22. Using multimeter to:
(i) Identify base of a transistor
(ii) Distinguish between npn and pnp type transistor
(iii) See the unidirectional flow of current in case of a diode and an LED.
(iv) Check the correctness or otherwise of a given electronic component (diode, transistor or IC).
CHEMISTRY
SECTION  A
PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY
UNIT 1: SOME BASIC CONCEPTS IN CHEMISTRY [Start Exam]
 Matter and its nature, Dalton's atomic theory; Concept of atom, molecule, element and compound; Physical quantities and their measurements in Chemistry, precision and accuracy, significant figures, S.I. Units, dimensional analysis; Laws of chemical combination; Atomic and molecular masses, mole concept, molar mass, percentage composition, empirical and molecular formulae; Chemical equations and stoichiometry.
UNIT 2: STATES OF MATTER [Start Exam]

Classification of matter into solid, liquid and gaseous states.
Gaseous State:
Measurable properties of gases; Gas laws  Boyle's law, Charle's law, Graham's law of diffusion, Avogadro's law, Dalton's law of partial pressure; Concept of Absolute scale of temperature; Ideal gas equation; Kinetic theory of gases (only postulates); Concept of average, root mean square and most probable velocities; Real gases, deviation from Ideal behaviour, compressibility factor and van der Waals equation.
Liquid State:
Properties of liquids  vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension and effect of temperature on them (qualitative treatment only).
Solid State:
Classification of solids: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea); Bragg's Law and its applications; Unit cell and lattices, packing in solids (fcc, bcc and hcp lattices), voids, calculations involving unit cell parameters, imperfection in solids; Electrical, magnetic and dielectric properties.
UNIT 3: ATOMIC STRUCTURE [Start Exam]
 Thomson and Rutherford atomic models and their limitations; Nature of electromagnetic radiation, photoelectric effect; Spectrum of hydrogen atom, Bohr model of hydrogen atom  its postulates, derivation of the relations for energy of the electron and radii of the different orbits, limitations of Bohr's model; Dual nature of matter, deBroglie's relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Elementary ideas of quantum mechanics, quantum mechanical model of atom, its important features, concept of atomic orbitals as one electron wave functions; Variation of ψ and ψ^{2}, with r for 1s and 2s orbitals; various quantum numbers (principal, angular momentum and magnetic quantum numbers) and their significance; shapes of s, p and d  orbitals, electron spin and spin quantum number; Rules for filling electrons in orbitals  aufbau principle, Pauli's exclusion principle and Hund's rule, electronic configuration of elements, extra stability of halffilled and completely filled orbitals.
UNIT 4: CHEMICAL BONDING AND MOLECULAR STRUCURE [Start Exam]

Kossel  Lewis approach to chemical bond formation, concept of ionic and covalent bonds.
Ionic Bonding:
Formation of ionic bonds, factors affecting the formation of ionic bonds; calculation of lattice enthalpy.
Covalent Bonding:
Concept of electronegativity, Fajan's rule, dipole moment; Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory and shapes of simple molecules.
Quantum mechanical approach to covalent bonding:
Valence bond theory  Its important features, concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals; Resonance.
Molecular Orbital Theory 
Its important features, LCAOs, types of molecular orbitals (bonding, antibonding), sigma and pibonds, molecular orbital electronic configurations of homonuclear diatomic molecules, concept of bond order, bond length and bond energy.
Elementary idea of metallic bonding. Hydrogen bonding and its applications.
UNIT 5: CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS [Start Exam]

Fundamentals of thermodynamics: System and surroundings, extensive and intensive
properties, state functions, types of processes.
First law of thermodynamics  Concept of work, heat internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity, molar heat capacity; Hess's law of constant heat summation; Enthalpies of bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, hydration, ionization and solution.
Second law of thermodynamics; Spontaneity of processes; DS of the universe and DG of the system as criteria for spontaneity, DG0 (Standard Gibbs energy change) and equilibrium constant.
UNIT 6: SOLUTIONS [Start Exam]
 Different methods for expressing concentration of solution  molality, molarity, mole fraction, percentage (by volume and mass both), vapour pressure of solutions and Raoult's Law  Ideal and nonideal solutions, vapour pressure  composition, plots for ideal and nonideal solutions; Colligative properties of dilute solutions  relative lowering of vapour pressure, depression of freezing point, elevation of boiling point and osmotic pressure; Determination of molecular mass using colligative properties; Abnormal value of molar mass, van't Hoff factor and its significance.
UNIT 7: EQUILIBRIUM [Start Exam]

Meaning of equilibrium, concept of dynamic equilibrium.
Equilibria involving physical processes: Solid liquid, liquid  gas and solid  gas equilibria, Henry's law, general characterics of equilibrium involving physical processes.
Equilibria involving chemical processes: Law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constants (Kp and Kc) and their significance, significance of DG and DGo in chemical equilibria, factors affecting equilibrium concentration, pressure, temperature, effect of catalyst; Le Chatelier's principle.
Ionic equilibrium: Weak and strong electrolytes, ionization of electrolytes, various concepts of acids and bases (Arrhenius, Brnsted  Lowry and Lewis) and their ionization, acid  base equilibria (including multistage ionization) and ionization constants, ionization of water, pH scale, common ion effect, hydrolysis of salts and pH of their solutions, solubility of sparingly soluble salts and solubility products, buffer solutions.
UNIT 8: REDOX REACTIONS AND ELECTROCHEMISTRY [Start Exam]

Electronic concepts of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, rules
for assigning oxidation number, balancing of redox reactions.
Eectrolytic and metallic conduction, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivities and their variation with concentration: Kohlrausch's law and its applications.
Electrochemical cells  Electrolytic and Galvanic cells, different types of electrodes, electrode potentials including standard electrode potential, half  cell and cell reactions, emf of a Galvanic cell and its measurement; Nernst equation and its applications; Relationship between cell potential and Gibbs' energy change; Dry cell and lead accumulator; Fuel cells.
UNIT 9 : CHEMICAL KINETICS [Start Exam]
 Rate of a chemical reaction, factors affecting the rate of reactions: concentration, temperature, pressure and catalyst; elementary and complex reactions, order and molecularity of reactions, rate law, rate constant and its units, differential and integral forms of zero and first order reactions, their characteristics and half  lives, effect of temperature on rate of reactions  Arrhenius theory, activation energy and its calculation, collision theory of bimolecular gaseous reactions (no derivation).
UNIT 10 : SURFACE CHEMISTRY [Start Exam]

Adsorption Physisorption and chemisorption and their characteristics, factors affecting
adsorption of gases on solids  Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms, adsorption
from solutions.
Catalysis  Homogeneous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity of solid catalysts, enzyme catalysis and its mechanism.
Colloidal state  distinction among true solutions, colloids and suspensions, classification of colloids  lyophilic, lyophobic; multi molecular, macromolecular and associated colloids (micelles), preparation and properties of colloids  Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, dialysis, coagulation and flocculation; Emulsions and their characteristics.
SECTION  B
INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
UNIT 11: CLASSIFICATON OF ELEMENTS AND PERIODICITY IN PROPERTIES [Start Exam]
 Modem periodic law and present form of the periodic table, s, p, d and f block elements, periodic trends in properties of elements atomic and ionic radii, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, valence, oxidation states and chemical reactivity.
UNIT 12: GENERAL PRINCIPLES AND PROCESSES OF ISOLATION OF METALS [Start Exam]
 Modes of occurrence of elements in nature, minerals, ores; Steps involved in the extraction of metals  concentration, reduction (chemical and electrolytic methods) and refining with special reference to the extraction of Al, Cu, Zn and Fe; Thermodynamic and electrochemical principles involved in the extraction of metals.
UNIT 13: HYDROGEN [Start Exam]
 Position of hydrogen in periodic table, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen; Physical and chemical properties of water and heavy water; Structure, preparation, reactions and uses of hydrogen peroxide; Hydrogen as a fuel.
UNIT 14: S  BLOCK ELEMENTS (ALKALI AND ALKALINE EARTH METALS) [Start Exam]

Group  1 and 2 Elements
General introduction, electronic configuration and general trends in physical and chemical properties of elements, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationships.
Preparation and properties of some important compounds  sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide; Industrial uses of lime, limestone, Plaster of Paris and cement; Biological significance of Na, K, Mg and Ca.
UNIT 15: P  BLOCK ELEMENTS [Start Exam]

Group  13 to Group 18 Elements
General Introduction: Electronic configuration and general trends in physical and chemical properties of elements across the periods and down the groups; unique behaviour of the first element in each group.
Groupwise study of the p  block elements
Group  13
Preparation, properties and uses of boron and aluminium; properties of boric acid, diborane, boron trifluoride, aluminium chloride and alums.
Group  14
Allotropes of carbon, tendency for catenation; Structure & properties of silicates, and zeolites.
Group  15
Properties and uses of nitrogen and phosphorus; Allotrophic forms of phosphorus; Preparation, properties, structure and uses of ammonia, nitric acid, phosphine and phosphorus halides, (PCl3, PCl5); Structures of oxides and oxoacids of phosphorus.
Group  16
Preparation, properties, structures and uses of ozone; Allotropic forms of sulphur; Preparation, properties, structures and uses of sulphuric acid (including its industrial preparation); Structures of oxoacids of sulphur.
Group  17
Preparation, properties and uses of hydrochloric acid; Trends in the acidic nature of hydrogen halides; Structures of Interhalogen compounds and oxides and oxoacids of halogens.
Group 18
Occurrence and uses of noble gases; Structures of fluorides and oxides of xenon.
UNIT 16: d  and f  BLOCK ELEMENTS [Start Exam]

Transition Elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics, general trends in properties of the first row transition elements  physical properties, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, atomic radii, colour, catalytic behaviour, magnetic properties, complex formation, interstitial compounds, alloy formation; Preparation, properties and uses of K_{2}Cr_{2}O_{7} and KmnO_{4}.
Inner Transition Elements
Lanthanoids  Electronic configuration, oxidation states and lanthanoid contraction. Actinoids  Electronic configuration and oxidation states.
UNIT 17: COORDINATION COMPOUNDS [Start Exam]
 Introduction to coordination compounds, Werner's theory; ligands, coordination number, denticity, chelation; IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, isomerism; BondingValence bond approach and basic ideas of Crystal field theory, colour and magnetic properties; Importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and in biological systems).
UNIT 18: ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY [Start Exam]

Environmental pollution  Atmospheric, water and soil.
Atmospheric pollution  Tropospheric and Stratospheric
Tropospheric pollutants  Gaseous pollutants: Oxides of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur, hydrocarbons; their sources, harmful effects and prevention; Green house effect and Global warming; Acid rain;
Particulate pollutants: Smoke, dust, smog, fumes, mist; their sources, harmful effects and prevention.
Stratospheric pollution Formation and breakdown of ozone, depletion of ozone layer  its mechanism and effects.
Water Pollution  Major pollutants such as, pathogens, organic wastes and chemical pollutants; their harmful effects and prevention.
Soil pollution  Major pollutants such as: Pesticides (insecticides,. herbicides and fungicides), their harmful effects and prevention.
Strategies to control environmental pollution.
SECTION  C
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
UNIT 19: PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERISATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

Purification  Crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential extraction
and chromatography  principles and their applications.
Qualitative analysis  Detection of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and halogens.
Quantitative analysis (basic principles only)  Estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogens, sulphur, phosphorus.
Calculations of empirical formulae and molecular formulae; Numerical problems in organic quantitative analysis.
UNIT 20: SOME BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY [Start Exam]

Tetravalency of carbon; Shapes of simple molecules  hybridization (s and
p); Classification of organic compounds based on functional groups:  C = C  ,  C h C  and
those containing halogens, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur; Homologous series; Isomerism 
structural and stereoisomerism.
Nomenclature (Trivial and IUPAC)
Covalent bond fission  Homolytic and heterolytic: free radicals, carbocations and carbanions; stability of carbocations and free radicals, electrophiles and nucleophiles.
Electronic displacement in a covalent bond  Inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyperconjugation.
Common types of organic reactions  Substitution, addition, elimination and rearrangement.
UNIT 21: HYDROCARBONS [Start Exam]

Classification, isomerism, IUPAC nomenclature, general methods of
preparation, properties and reactions.
Alkanes  Conformations: Sawhorse and Newman projections (of ethane); Mechanism of halogenation of alkanes.
Alkenes  Geometrical isomerism; Mechanism of electrophilic addition: addition of hydrogen, halogens, water, hydrogen halides (Markownikoff's and peroxide effect); Ozonolysis and polymerization.
Alkynes  Acidic character; Addition of hydrogen, halogens, water and hydrogen halides; Polymerization.
Aromatic hydrocarbons  Nomenclature, benzene  structure and aromaticity; Mechanism of electrophilic substitution: halogenation, nitration, Friedel  Craft's alkylation and acylation, directive influence of functional group in monosubstituted benzene.
UNIT 22: ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING HALOGENS

General methods of preparation, properties and reactions; Nature of CX
bond; Mechanisms of substitution reactions.Uses; Environmental effects of chloroform &
iodoform.
UNIT 23: ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING OXYGEN

General methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses.
ALCOHOLS, PHENOLS AND ETHERS [Start Exam]
Alcohols: Identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration.
Phenols: Acidic nature, electrophilic substitution reactions: halogenation, nitration and sulphonation, Reimer  Tiemann reaction.
Ethers: Structure.
Aldehyde and Ketones: [Start Exam]
Nature of carbonyl group;Nucleophilic addition to >C=O group, relative reactivities of aldehydes and ketones; Important reactions such as  Nucleophilic addition reactions (addition of HCN, NH3 and its derivatives), Grignard reagent; oxidation; reduction (Wolff Kishner and Clemmensen); acidity of  hydrogen, aldol condensation, Cannizzaro reaction, Haloform reaction; Chemical tests to distinguish between aldehydes and Ketones.
CARBOXYLIC ACIDS
Acidic strength and factors affecting it.
UNIT 24: ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING NITROGEN [Start Exam]

General methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses.
Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, basic character and identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines and their basic character.
Diazonium Salts: Importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
UNIT 25: POLYMERS [Start Exam]

General introduction and classification of polymers, general methods of polymerizationaddition
and condensation, copolymerization;
Natural and synthetic rubber and vulcanization; some important polymers with emphasis on their monomers and uses  polythene, nylon, polyester and bakelite.
UNIT 26: BIOMOLECULES [Start Exam]

General introduction and importance of biomolecules.
CARBOHYDRATES  Classification: aldoses and ketoses; monosaccharides (glucose and fructose) and constituent monosaccharides of oligosacchorides (sucrose, lactose and maltose).
PROTEINS  Elementary Idea of  amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides; Proteins: primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins, enzymes.
VITAMINS  Classification and functions.
NUCLEIC ACIDS  Chemical constitution of DNA and RNA.
Biological functions of nucleic acids.
UNIT 27: CHEMISTRY IN EVERYDAY LIFE [Start Exam]

Chemicals in medicines  Analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics,
disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamins  their
meaning and common examples.
Chemicals in food  Preservatives, artificial sweetening agents  common examples.
Cleansing agents  Soaps and detergents, cleansing action.
UNIT 28: PRINCIPLES RELATED TO PRACTICAL CHEMISTRY

Detection of extra elements (N,S, halogens) in organic compounds; Detection of the
following functional groups: hydroxyl (alcoholic and phenolic), carbonyl (aldehyde
and ketone), carboxyl and amino groups in organic compounds.

Chemistry involved in the preparation of the following: Inorganic compounds:
Mohr's salt, potash alum. Organic compounds: Acetanilide, pnitroacetanilide, aniline
yellow, iodoform.

Chemistry involved in the titrimetric excercises  Acids bases and the use of
indicators, oxalicacid vs KMnO4, Mohr's salt vs KMnO4

Chemical principles involved in the qualitative salt analysis:
Cations  Pb^{2+} , Cu^{2+}, AI^{3+}, Fe^{3+}, Zn^{2+}, Ni^{2+}, Ca^{2+}, Ba^{2+}, Mg^{2+}, NH^{4+}.
Anions CO^{2}, S^{2}, SO^{2}, NO^{}, NO^{}, CI^{}, Br^{}, I^{}.
(Insoluble salts excluded).

Chemical principles involved in the following experiments:
1. Enthalpy of solution of CuSO_{4}
2. Enthalpy of neutralization of strong acid and strong base.
3. Preparation of lyophilic and lyophobic sols.
4. Kinetic study of reaction of iodide ion with hydrogen peroxide at room temperature.
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